The success of the 2nd conference on solar air conditioning held in Tarragona in October 2007 represented a clear message to scientists, professionals, firms, and organizers: The positive trend of solar cooling applications is growing stronger. A number of technical seminars, courses, and communication actions have been organised in several countries. Congresses, exhibitions, and fairs have been recently included into the Solar Cooling topics beside the traditional ones. IEA activities of Task 38 (Solar Air Conditioning and Refrigeration) are now involving a number of participants which is four times larger than the one four years ago. EU research and dissemination programmes have strengthened the link between heating and cooling in the application of solar thermal technologies. Many private investors are developing technologies aimed for seeking new attractive market niches (i.e. residential and tertiary sectors). With this encouraging framework and with the heritage of the two previous conferences, the organisers started to organize the 3rd Conference in Palermo.