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closed loop systems

Solar Water Heating – Natural Gas Assisted or Stand Alone Solar?" (2011)

Submitted by Raquel Ponte Costa on June 20, 2015

This presentation was created by Paul Outram of Sun Earth Inc. It provides background information on solar thermal water heating technology, and finishes by making the case for the necessity of hybrid natural gas – solar thermal water heating systems. The presentation is illustrated with photos and graphs throughout.

Solar Hot Water in Alaska (2011)

Submitted by Raquel Ponte Costa on April 7, 2015

This presentation was written by Harvey Bowers of the Alaska Center for Appropriate Technology (ACAT). It provides information on solar thermal water heating in cold climates and uses a case study and examples from installations in Alaska to demonstrate how solar thermal can be effective in similar settings.

Solar thermal heating, as demonstrated by the residence in question, works best in climates like Alaska’s when utilizing passive design and closed loop systems, as keeping solar fraction high is challenging during the winter.

Analysis of a Closed Loop Solar Energy System Using the -f Chart Method: Effect of Different Brazilian Locations (2013)

Submitted by Raquel Ponte Costa on January 6, 2015

This study, conducted by Alexandre M.S. Costa of the State University of Maringá and published by the State University of Ponta Grossa in Brazil, analyzes the annual energy performance of a closed-loop hot water solar thermal system under various weather conditions in 6 Brazilian cities (Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Salvador and Brasília) using the -f chart method. This method is based on 2 different approaches. It calculates the fraction (f) of monthly heat load that comes from solar energy.

South Africa: Clarity sought on Future of Rebate Scheme

Submitted by Baerbel Epp on July 29, 2011

 South Africa utility Eskom” There has been no decision yet regarding the future of the national residential incentive programme by South African utility Eskom: As of 12 July 2011, the utility counted a backlog of all in all 53,208 applications. This is more than half of the number of all applications approved since the beginning of the programme in 2007 (84,214 application). 76 % of the applications that are still pending approval deal with open loop systems. Closed loop systems make up the smaller proportion, with 12,644 still pending applications.

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